Британские войска на Ближнем Востоке (1916-1918) / British Troops in Middle East (1916-1918) - Antique Photos Forum

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Британские войска на Ближнем Востоке (1916-1918) / British Troops in Middle East (1916-1918)


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#1 НЕ В СЕТИ   Freiwillige

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Отправлено 09 Июнь 2016 - 22:14

Предлагаю вашему вниманию большую подборку нечастых фотографий, сделанных британским военнослужащим во время Синайско-Палестинской кампании 1915-1918 гг. (Палестина, Сирия, Синайский полуостров).

Фото № 1. Надпись на обороте: "Palestine. Cl. Wells. "Deadwood Dick".


#2 НЕ В СЕТИ   Freiwillige

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Отправлено 09 Июнь 2016 - 22:14

Фото № 2.


#3 НЕ В СЕТИ   Freiwillige

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Отправлено 09 Июнь 2016 - 22:15

Фото № 3. Надпись на обороте: "Palestine. Our Mascot. El Shat, January 1917".


#4 НЕ В СЕТИ   AlexanderK

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Отправлено 10 Июнь 2016 - 01:41

:JC_doubleup:
Очень интересные фотографии!

#5 НЕ В СЕТИ   Freiwillige

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Отправлено 26 Июнь 2016 - 23:21

Фото № 4. Надпись на обороте: "A.S.C. Dump, Dier El Belah".


#6 НЕ В СЕТИ   Freiwillige

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Отправлено 26 Июнь 2016 - 23:26

Фото № 5. Надпись на обороте: "Pat Avison's Grave. Julis, Palestine, March 1918".


#7 НЕ В СЕТИ   Freiwillige

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Отправлено 26 Июнь 2016 - 23:27

Фрагмент с могилой рядового пулеметчика Эвисона. Погиб 15 (16-?) ноября 1917 г.


#8 НЕ В СЕТИ   Freiwillige

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Отправлено 26 Июнь 2016 - 23:30

Фрагмент с могилой рядового Беста из йоменского (кавалерийского) полка. Погиб 14 ноября 1917 г., судя по всему, в сражении при Эль Мугаре (13.11.1917 г.).


#9 НЕ В СЕТИ   sulejm34

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Отправлено 27 Июнь 2016 - 13:11

Ценная подборка, Андрей. У нас редкость! На фото из поста № 5 - бойцы Индийского экспедиционного корпуса.
«Индийский экспедиционный корпус E» - образован в начале 1918 года после того как в Палестину с Западного фронта были переброшены две индийские кавалерийские дивизии. К этим двум дивизиям также были присоединены кавалерийская бригада в составе трёх уланских полков из княжеств Хайдарабад, Майсур и Джодхпур[Sumner, Ian. The Indian Army 1914-1947. — Osprey Publishing, 2001. — P. 6.]. 3-я и 7-я пехотные дивизии были переведены на палестинский фронт из Месопотамии. Помимо этого 36 батальонов индийской армии были отправлены на помощь английским войскам. В состав 10-й, 53-й, 60-й и 75-й английских пехотных дивизий(Perrett, Bryan. Megiddo 1918. — Osprey Publishing, 1999. — P. 24—26. )
Многие индийские части можно различить по тюрбанам, имевшим характерные особенности того или иного региона. Интересно, кто представлен на этом фото?

#10 НЕ В СЕТИ   Freiwillige

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Отправлено 27 Июнь 2016 - 14:33

Денис, спасибо!
Это лишь малая часть подборки - фотографий целый альбом! Буду потихоньку выкладывать.

#11 НЕ В СЕТИ   sulejm34

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Отправлено 27 Июнь 2016 - 15:31

Супер! Будем ждать! Британский альбом о палестинском фронте - это надо видеть!

#12 НЕ В СЕТИ   cmf

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Отправлено 12 Июль 2016 - 19:08

Hi Andrew and Denis!

Well, with these photos you’ve kept me busy!! Firstly, I’ll go through photographs 1, 2, 3, and 5, in sequence.

Photo 1 is straightaway identifiable as a Corporal of the ‘Mounted Services’, due to his wearing of riding breeches, which were standard wear for all ‘Other Ranks’ of mounted units. Initially introduced as the 1902 pattern ‘Pantaloons, Bedford Cord, Mounted Services, Service Dress’ in khaki, after 1916 they were also made in ‘Tartan, Drab Mixture’, which was a heavy, stiff wool cloth, similar in weight to the khaki 1902 universal pattern ‘Service Dress’ jacket for Other Ranks. These breeches were worn in all parts of the world by mounted troops when in khaki, in temperate, hot or tropical climates, when wearing the serge Service Dress jacket or the light cotton jacket known as the ‘Frock, Khaki Drill’.

Looking at the shade and cut of this N.C.O.’s jacket, we see that he is wearing the serge Service Dress jacket, which was not unusual, even in the desert: although ‘Khaki Drill’ was the British Army’s standard uniform in the Balkan, Egyptian, and Asian Theatres of War during World War One, in climates where night temperatures could drop severely (as in the Middle East), or there was significant seasonal variation in temperature (as in the Balkans), Khaki Drill would be mixed freely with elements of serge Service Dress, to produce every possible mixture of clothing. We see this illustrated again in the fact that this man also wears a serge Service Dress cap (specifically the ‘soft’ version introduced in 1916) instead of the ‘Helmet, Universal, Khaki, Wolseley Pattern’, which was regulation wear in hot climates. Completing the identification of this man as a mounted serviceman are the puttees wound from the knee to the boot in the Mounted Services fashion, and the standard ‘Jack Spurs’, which for Other Ranks as here were fastened with a leather strap.

Now we know this Corporal is a mounted serviceman, we have to identify exactly which arm of the Mounted Services he belongs to – and for this we turn to his sidearm. He wears the open-topped, brown leather ‘Case, pistol, Webley, with leather loops, Mark I’, which was the pattern worn by Other Ranks entitled to carry a pistol when equipped with the ‘Bandolier Equipment, Pattern 1903’, the waist-belt of which this soldier indeed wears (by the start of the Great War, with a few exceptions, the 1903 equipment was worn only by mounted troops). However, within the Mounted Services of both the Regular Army and Territorial Force, the only Other Ranks to carry pistols were men of the ‘Military Mounted Police’, range-takers of the ‘Royal Field Artillery’ and ‘Royal Horse Artillery’, men of the mounted ‘Signal Squadrons’ of the ‘Signal Service, Royal Engineers’, trumpeters and machine-gunners of the cavalry regiments of the Regular Army, trumpeters and machine-gunners of the ‘Yeomanry’ regiments of the Territorial Force, and, after 1917, men of the ‘Machine Gun Squadrons’ of the ‘Machine Gun Corps (Cavalry)’. Pistols were also carried in the cavalry and Yeomanry by Warrant Officers, Staff Serjeants and Serjeants, in lieu of the rifle.

For reasons outlined in photograph 5, where the photographer personally knew a machine-gunner of the 17th Machine Gun Squadron of the Machine Gun Corps (Cavalry), which was attached to the ‘6th Mounted Brigade’ (and formed from the amalgamation of the existing machine-gun sections of the three Yeomanry regiments within the Brigade), I believe the man depicted in this photograph is 165871 Corporal Ernest Wells of the Machine Gun Corps (Cavalry). Wells previously served as No. 1884 of the ‘1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars)’, one of the constituent regiments of 6th Mounted Brigade. Wells enlisted into the Royal Bucks. Hussars on 2nd November 1914, and disembarked in Egypt on 12th September 1915. He was ‘disembodied’ (the term used for the demobilisation of those enlisted under Territorial Force terms of engagement) on 19th September 1919, under paragraph 392 (xvi a) of King’s Regulations 1912, being “Surplus to military requirements (having suffered impairment since entry into the service)”.

‘Deadwood Dick’, as inscribed on the back of the photograph, must be his Wells’ nickname, and/or referring to his pose in the photo: ‘Deadwood Dick’ himself was a literary creation of U.S. author Edward Lytton Wheeler, appearing in pulp novels during the 1870s and 1870s, the character being a cowboy outlaw and highwayman.

Сообщение отредактировал cmf: 12 Июль 2016 - 20:41


#13 НЕ В СЕТИ   cmf

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Отправлено 12 Июль 2016 - 19:15

Photo 2 is a good study of a soldier of the cavalry branch of the Machine Gun Corps, at rest, in camp. His Bedford Cord breeches are of a light khaki shade, and he has removed his jacket to reveal the issue grey, or silver-grey, flannel collarless shirt, commonly known as a ‘grey-back’. In the field, during extremely hot weather, the Khaki Drill jacket was often ordered removed, with troops fighting in ‘Shirtsleeve Order’. This soldier wears the un-stiffened ‘Cap, Soft, Service Dress, Other Ranks’, which was introduced in 1916, and worn alongside the stiff 1905 pattern ‘Cap, Service Dress, Other Ranks’. The cap badge is the distinctive crossed machine-guns (Vickers Mark I) surmounted by the ‘Tudor Crown’, which was in gilding-metal (bronzed for Officers), and worn by both the infantry and cavalry branches of the Machine Gun Corps.

Сообщение отредактировал cmf: 12 Июль 2016 - 20:22


#14 НЕ В СЕТИ   cmf

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Отправлено 12 Июль 2016 - 19:17

Photo 3 shows a Lance-Corporal in the 1902 pattern riding breeches and serge Service Dress jacket as described for photo 1. He wears the stiff, 1905 pattern Service Dress cap, with a gilding-metal cap badge which, though indistinct, corresponds to that worn by the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars) after 1908: a circlet inscribed with the words ‘YEOMEN OF BUCKS. – STRIKE HOME’, surrounding the ‘White Swan’ from the coat-of-arms of the Dukes of Buckingham; the circlet surmounted by a Tudor Crown, and, below the circlet, a scroll inscribed ‘ROYAL BUCKS. HUSSARS’. The shoulder-titles of the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars) were quite straightforward, being a simple, straight ‘R.B.H.’, standing for ‘Royal Bucks. Hussars’, although the initials were jokingly construed as standing for ‘Rothschild’s Blood-Hounds’ (due to the close connection of the Rothschild banking family with the Yeomanry regiment of their adopted county of Buckinghamshire – Captain Evelyn Achille de Rothschild had briefly commanded the 1/1st Royal Bucks. Hussars at Gallipoli, and, as a Major, was mortally wounded in Palestine when the regiment charged at the Action of El Mughar, in November 1917).

In the photograph, note the ‘Bandolier Equipment, Pattern 1903’, specifically the 90-round bandolier issued to Other Ranks of the cavalry and Yeomanry, which had 5 cartridge pockets riveted to the front, and four pockets on the back (other mounted troops wore the 50-round bandolier, with just 5 cartridge pockets on the front). He wears the 1903 waist-belt, which normally was not worn by mounted troops, except by cavalry or Yeomanry when dismounted and acting as infantry, or, as here, by mounted Other Ranks entitled to carry a pistol. Also note the white lanyard worn on the left shoulder, securing his clasp knife in his left breast pocket: the clasp knife was, before 1914, only on general issue to men of the ‘Mounted Service’, and by default the lanyard became a distinction of mounted troops (and maintained during the Great War, when the clasp knife was issued to all troops, dismounted as well as mounted).

Wearing the cap-badge of the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars), a waist-belt, and photographed at El Shat(t) in western Sinai (located near the port of Suez), during January 1917, we can assume this man is a member of the newly forming 17th Machine Gun Squadron, which was established that month. The 6th Mounted Brigade was, at this time, stationed in Sinai along the eastern bank of the Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez, but only Brigade H.Q., the Signals Troop, and the 17th Machine Gun Squadron were actually located at El Shatt. This Lance-Corporal must still be waiting for Machine Gun Corps insignia to be issued.

Сообщение отредактировал cmf: 12 Июль 2016 - 20:29


#15 НЕ В СЕТИ   cmf

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Отправлено 12 Июль 2016 - 19:29

Photo 5 (i)

96134 Private Arthur Thomas Avison
No. 1 Section, 17th Machine Gun Squadron, Machine Gun Corps (Cavalry)

26th August, 1884: Arthur Thomas Avison is born in Sandymount, County Dublin, Ireland, to George Charles Avison (1837-1905), a Bookkeeper, and Annie Amelia Avison (née Spedding) (1844-1934). The family live at Tritonville Road, Sandymount, County Dublin, Ireland.

25th January, 1885: Arthur Thomas Avison is baptised in the Royal Chapel of St Matthew, Ringsend, County Dublin, Ireland.

31st March, 1901: At the 1901 Census, Arthur Thomas Avison is living with his parents at 9 Victoria Terrace (off St John’s Road), Sandymount, County Dublin, Ireland. The occupation of Arthur Thomas Avison is given as that of ‘Stationer’, and that of his father as ‘Director, Drapery Company’.

2nd April, 1911: At the 1911 Census, Arthur Thomas Avison is resident at the premises of T.B. & W. Cockayne (Limited), Drapers and Furnishers, Angel Street, Sheffield, West Riding of Yorkshire, England. His occupation is listed as ‘Furnishing Assistant’.

29th July, 1915: Arthur Thomas Avison, who gives his address as the Hampden Club, Hampden Street, London N.W., enlists into the ‘Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars)’ of the Territorial Force, at the recruiting office located at New Court, St Swithin’s Lane, London E.C. Avison immediately signs the ‘Imperial Service Obligation’. Posted to the 3/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars), stationed at the regimental H.Q. in Buckingham.

Upon the formation of the all-arms Territorial Force (T.F.) in 1908 (whose wartime rôle was primarily home defence, with overseas service being only a secondary function), its cavalry arm consisted of regiments of ‘Yeomanry’. The Yeomanry were essentially volunteer reserve cavalry regiments intended for local defence within the United Kingdom, having first been raised during the Napoleonic Wars (until the middle of the 19th Century, the Yeomanry was also utilised, when necessary, to maintain public order). A Yeomanry unit had first been formed in Buckinghamshire in 1794, and which since the early 19th Century had been uniformed and equipped in the Hussar style. Like the T.F. infantry battalions, Yeomanry regiments were constituent parts of purely Territorial Force higher formations: the ‘Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars)’ formed part of the ‘2nd South Midland Mounted Brigade’, together with the ‘Berkshire Yeomanry (Hungerford)’, and the ‘Oxfordshire Yeomanry (Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars)’.

On mobilisation (although ‘embodiment’ was the correct term for the Territorial Force) in 1914, there were 55 regiments of Yeomanry (each of four squadrons), with two more regiments being raised during August 1914: like the infantry battalions of the Territorial Force, the Yeomanry was soon required to serve overseas, although the same difficulty applied, namely the terms of service under which volunteers had joined the Territorial Force. This obstacle was that although all men in the Territorial Force had a legal requirement to serve within the United Kingdom, to serve overseas a man had to sign the ‘Imperial Service Obligation’. As not all men were willing to do this, the decision was soon made to split each T.F. infantry battalion and Yeomanry regiment, into a ‘Foreign Service’ or ‘1st Line’ unit (composed of men who had volunteered for ‘Imperial’ i.e. overseas service), a ‘Home Service’ or ‘2nd Line’ unit (comprising men who had not volunteered for overseas service, or were unfit), and, later, a ‘Reserve’ or ‘3rd Line’ unit (training new recruits for both the 1st and 2nd Lines). Thus, from each original battalion or regiment there arose three mirror images, and these were soon given fractional designations of the parent unit: for the Yeomanry, this always took the form 1/1st. 2/1st, or 3/1st (reflecting the fact that Yeomanry regiments were single entities in themselves, unlike the Territorial infantry battalions, who were almost all part of the multi-battalion county infantry regiments, and thus already possessing battalion numbers).

In March, 1915, the decision was made to refuse any future enlistment into the Territorial Force of men unwilling to undertake the ‘Imperial Service Obligation’. Thus we see Arthur Thomas Avison signing the obligation on the day of his enlistment.

1st February, 1916: 2512 Private Arthur Thomas Avison, 3/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars), is posted to 1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars), and embarks at Devonport, bound for Egypt.

13th February, 1916: 2512 Private Arthur Thomas Avison, 1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars), disembarks at Alexandria, in Egypt.

1st March, 1916: 2512 Private Arthur Thomas Avison, 1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars), proceeds to the Western Frontier Force to join his regiment.

In April, 1915, 1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars) embarked for Egypt as part of the 2nd South Midland Mounted Brigade, which in turn was part of the newly formed, and Yeomanry only, 2nd Mounted Division. On landing at Alexandria, the 2nd Mounted Divison became part of the ‘Force in Egypt’. In August 1915, the 2nd Mounted Division dismounted, and leaving their horses behind in Egypt, embarked for Gallipoli as part of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, where it fought as infantry, suffering heavy losses. In December 1915, the 2nd Mounted Division returned to Egypt, and its units remounted. The now renamed ‘2nd (2nd South Midland) Mounted Brigade’ was detached as an independent formation, and sent to Egypt’s western frontier in January, 1916. Here it became part of the ‘Western Frontier Force’ (W.F.F.), which was a subordinate formation of the newly created ‘Egyptian Expeditionary Force’, and tasked with conducting the campaign against the Senussi tribe, who with Ottoman support had raised jihad against the British. It was as part of the W.F.F. that the 1/1st Royal Bucks. Hussars, and other elements of the 2nd Mounted Brigade, together with Territorial infantry & artillery, and South African infantry, took part in the Action at Agagia, near Sidi Barrani on the coast, defeating a Senussi force in pitched battle. In March 1916, the 2nd (2nd South Midland) Mounted Brigade was retitled the ‘6th Mounted Brigade’, and the Brigade assigned to the newly created North-West Section of the W.F.F. In October 1916, the 6th Mounted Brigade left the W.F.F., and in January 1917 joined the newly established ‘Imperial Mounted Division’ (so called because it comprised British Yeomanry and Australian Light Horse) for operations in Sinai and Palestine, as part of the corps-strength ‘Desert Column’ of the ‘Eastern Frontier Force’ of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force.

December, 1916: 2512 Private Arthur Thomas Avison, 1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars), attends a machine-gun course at the Imperial School of Instruction, Zeitoun, Cairo. Qualifies as a ‘1st Class Machine Gunner’, and thus entitled to wear, on his lower left sleeve, the skill-at-arms badge of the letters ‘MG’ within a wreath.

12th January, 1917: 2512 Private Arthur Thomas Avison, 1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars), is transferred on probation to the 17th Machine Gun Squadron, Machine Gun Corps (Cavalry).

February, 1917: 2512 Private Arthur Thomas Avison, 1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars), stationed at El Shatt, Sinai, Egypt, formally requests permission to permanently transfer to the Machine Gun Corps (Cavalry), for the purpose of joining the 17th Machine Gun Squadron.

7th March, 1917: 2512 Private Arthur Thomas Avison, 1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars), is transferred permanently to the Machine Gun Corps (Cavalry), and posted to No. 1 Section, 17th Machine Gun Squadron.

In 1914, each battalion of regular and territorial infantry, and each regiment of regular cavalry or territorial Yeomanry, possessed a machine-gun section with two Vickers-Maxim machine-guns (the British Army’s new machine-gun, the Vickers Mark I, was only slowly being introduced into service). In addition, in November 1914, the ‘Motor Machine Gun Service’ (M.M.G.S.) was established (under the control of the Royal Field Artillery), which consisted of motorcycle and sidecar combinations mounted with machine-guns, which were formed into batteries attached to divisional artillery. In order to concentrate firepower in the hands of higher formations, the decision was taken in October 1915 to establish the new ‘Machine Gun Corps’ (M.G.C.), formed into infantry, cavalry and motor branches: within each infantry brigade, all the battalion machine-gun sections would transfer to the M.G.C., and combine to form a ‘Machine Gun Company’ (the battalions receiving Lewis light machine-guns in exchange); within a cavalry/Yeomanry brigade, regimental M.G. sections would re-badge as M.G.C., and amalgamate to form a ‘Machine Gun Squadron’ (the regiments receiving Hotchkiss light machine-guns in exchange); and the existing M.M.G.S. batteries were combined with armoured-cars to form ‘Motor Machine Gun Batteries’ of the M.G.C., attached to divisional, and later corps, headquarters.

The 17th Machine Gun Squadron of the Machine Gun Corps (Cavalry), was formed on 12th January 1917, as the dedicated machine-gun unit of the 6th Mounted Brigade: it was created from the amalgamation of the existing machine-gun sections of ‘1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry (Royal Bucks. Hussars)’, ‘1/1st Dorset Yeomanry (Queen's Own)’, and the ‘1/1st Berkshire Yeomanry (Hungerford)’. A Machine Gun Squadron consisted of 8 Officers and 203 Other Ranks, equipped with 299 horses, 18 limbers, 1 General Service wagon and 1 water cart. These were formed up into six two-gun sections each of a Subaltern, 33 men and 46 horses. The Squadron was commanded by a Major or Captain.

The 6th Mounted Brigade took part in the First Battle of Gaza, in March 1917, and the Second Battle of Gaza the following month. In June 1917, the 6th Mounted Brigade left the Imperial Mounted Division to join the ‘Yeomanry Mounted Division’ at el Maraqeb, which was a new formation created within the Desert Column (the Desert Column itself being renamed the ‘Desert Mounted Corps’ in August 1917). In late October 1917 the 6th Mounted Brigade participated in the ‘Southern Palestine Offensive’, which started with the Battle of Beersheba. This was followed by the Third Battle of Gaza in early November, and then the Action of El Mughar on the 13th November. On the 14th November, the 6th Mounted Brigade was in the vanguard of the eastern pursuit of retreating Ottoman forces, advancing from Akir to Naane, before turning south-east and capturing the ridge running between Sidun to Abu Shusheh on the 15th November, 1917.

14th November, 1917: 96134 Private Arthur Thomas Avison, No. 1 Section, 17th Machine Gun Squadron, Machine Gun Corps (Cavalry), receives a gunshot wound to the abdomen.

15th November, 1917: 96134 Private Arthur Thomas Avison, No. 1 Section, 17th Machine Gun Squadron, Machine Gun Corps (Cavalry), dies of wounds at the Australian Mounted Division Receiving Station, located at Julis, Palestine. Buried that day on the east side of the road, 500 yards from the village of Julis. Later exhumed and reburied at Gaza War Cemetery, plot X, row ‘E’, grave 15.

Сообщение отредактировал cmf: 12 Июль 2016 - 20:10


#16 НЕ В СЕТИ   cmf

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Отправлено 12 Июль 2016 - 19:38

Photo 5 (ii)

50294 Private Arthur Barrett Best
1/1st East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry

Jan.–Feb., 1896: The birth of Arthur Barrett B. Barrett [sic] is registered in Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire, during the first quarter of 1896, having been born out of wedlock to Arthur Morley Best (1873-1931), a clerk by occupation, and Frances Eliza Barrett (1876-1950).

15th February, 1896: Marriage of Arthur Morley Best to Frances Eliza Barrett, in St Luke’s parish church, Kingston-upon-Hull.

2nd April, 1896: Arthur Barrett Best is baptised at St John’s parish church, Newland, Kingston-upon-Hull. The address of Arthur Morley Best and his wife, Frances Eliza Best, is given as 2 Woodbine Terrace, Newland, Kingston-upon-Hull.

31st March, 1901: At the 1901 Census, Arthur Barret Best is living with his parents and sister at 85 Welbeck Street, Newland, Kingston-upon-Hull. The occupation of Arthur Morley Best is given as ‘Clerk (Commercial)’.

2nd April, 1911: At the 1911 Census, Arthur Barrett Best is living with his mother, sister, and maternal grandmother, at 8 Woodlands, Municipal Borough of Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire. His occupation is listed as ‘Apprentice to Chartered Accountant’. Frances Eliza Best is listed as the head of the family, and her occupation is given as ‘Lodging-House Keeper’.

29th August, 1914: Arthur Barrett Best, resident of Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire, enlists at Kingston-upon-Hull into the ‘East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry’ of the Territorial Force.

A Yeomanry unit had first been formed in the East Riding sub-division of Yorkshire in 1794, but was disbanded in 1814. In 1902, in the aftermath of the Second Boer War, Yeomanry were once again raised in the East Riding, with the formation of the ‘East Riding of Yorkshire Imperial Yeomanry’, headquartered at Beverley: from 1906 the regiment was uniformed and equipped in the Lancer style. In 1908, with the reorganisation of volunteer reserve units into the new Territorial Force, the ‘Imperial’ title was abolished, and the regiment becoming simply the ‘East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry’. In August 1914 the East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry was a constituent regiment of the ‘Yorkshire Mounted Brigade’, which also comprised the ‘Yorkshire Hussars Yeomanry (Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own)’, the ‘Yorkshire Dragoons Yeomanry (Queen's Own)’, as well as other mounted support units.

With the initial splitting of the East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry into 1st and 2nd Line units in September 1914, the 1/1st East Riding Yeomanry stayed with the Yorkshire Mounted Brigade until early 1915, whence it moved to the ‘2nd Northumbrian Division’ (a purely Territorial Force formation engaged on coastal defence near Newcastle-upon-Tyne) as divisional cavalry. In May 1915 the 1/1st moved to Norfolk, joining the ‘1’1st Staffordshire Yeomanry (Queen's Own Royal Regiment)’ and ‘1/1st Lincolnshire Yeomanry’ in the ‘1/1st North Midland Mounted Brigade’, part of the ‘1st Mounted Division’.

27th October, 1915: 1462 Private Arthur Barrett Best, 1/1st East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry, embarks with his regiment onto H.M.T. Victorian at Southampton, bound for Salonika in Greece.

10th November, 1915: 1462 Private Arthur Barrett Best, 1/1st East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry, disembarks with his regiment at Alexandria in Egypt.

On 27th October 1915, 1/1st North Midland Mounted Brigade embarked at Southampton for Salonika, having been detached from the 1st Mounted Division and assigned to serve with the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. However, while at sea, orders were changed, and the Brigade landed at Alexandria, in Egypt, between the 10th and 20th November. On the 29th November, the 1/1st North Midland Mounted Brigade became a formation of the ‘Western Frontier Force’, the Brigade moving to guard the oasis city of Faiyum, south-west of Cairo. In late March 1916, the 1/1st North Midland Mounted Brigade was retitled the ‘22nd Mounted Brigade’. In February 1917, the Brigade became a formation in the ‘Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division’ (commonly known as the ‘A.N.Z.A.C. Mounted Division’), which was part of the corps-strength ‘Desert Column’ of the ‘Egyptian Expeditionary Force’. As part of the advance of the ANZAC Mounted Division into Sinai and Palestine, the 1/1st East Riding Yeomanry took part in its first battle, namely the First Battle of Gaza, in March 1917, followed by action in the Second Battle of Gaza the following month.

April, 1917: 1462 Private Arthur Barrett Best, 1/1st East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry, is renumbered 50294.

In July 1917, the 22nd Mounted Brigade left the A.N.Z.A.C. Mounted Division to join the newly formed ‘Yeomanry Mounted Division’ at el Fuqari. In late October 1917 the 22nd Mounted Brigade participated in the ‘Southern Palestine Offensive’, which started with the Battle of Beersheba. This was followed by the Third Battle of Gaza in early November, and then the Action of El Mughar on the 13th November, where the 1/1st East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry supported the great cavalry undertaken by the Yeomanry regiments of the 6th Mounted Brigade. On the 13th November, ‘A’ Squadron of the 1/1st East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry led 22nd Mounted Brigade in its pursuit of retreating Ottoman forces to the village of Akir: here the squadron established a position on the far side of the village square, but being unsupported by the rest of the Brigade, had to subsequently withdraw.

13th November, 1917: 50294 Private Arthur Barrett Best, 1/1st East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry, receives a gunshot wound to the stomach whilst in action at Akir, Palestine.

14th November, 1917: 50294 Private Arthur Barrett Best, 1/1st East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry, dies of wounds at the Australian Mounted Division Receiving Station, located at Julis, Palestine. Buried that day on the east side of the road, 500 yards from the village of Julis. Later exhumed and reburied at Gaza War Cemetery, plot X, row ‘E’, grave 14.

The following article appeared in Arthur Barret Best’s local newspaper, the ‘Beverley Guardian’, on 2nd March 1918, page 4:

‘Trooper A.B. Best, Yeomanry. Only son of Mrs. F. Best, of 8 Woodlands, Beverley. Died in Egypt November 14th, from wounds received the previous day.

Mrs Best has received the following letter from her son’s commanding officer: -


The action in which your son was wounded was the taking of Akir on the 13th November. The infantry had been held up all day by the Turks holding a ridge, which covered the village, and in the afternoon the Yeomanry division was ordered to gallop the position. This was carried out most successfully, and resulted in capturing over 1000 prisoners. The Yeomanry were pursuing the Turks still further and whilst my squadron were galloping in line we came under heavy machine gun and rifle fire, and it was then your son was hit through the stomach. He was able to ride back to the dressing station and went off in the ambulance the same evening.


He got to the Casualty Clearing Station at Deir Senaid where he died the next day. He is buried near Julis.


I saw him before he left us in the evening of the 13th, and hoped he might pull through.


I sympathise very deeply with you in your loss; he was a thoroughly gallant good lad, always cheery under any conditions, and he was, I know, most popular with his comrades. I hope the knowledge that he thought and died bravely may be some consolation to you.”’


Arthur Barrett Best’s father, Arthur Morley Best, enlisted on the 3rd August 1915 into ‘The East Yorkshire Regiment’. He disembarked in France on 24th December 1915, having been posted to the 7th (Service) Battalion. Arthur Morley Best was discharged from the Army on 21st February 1918, due to being no longer being physically fit for war service, having exceeded military age.

Сообщение отредактировал cmf: 12 Июль 2016 - 20:52


#17 НЕ В СЕТИ   cmf

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Отправлено 12 Июль 2016 - 19:48

Photo 4 was taken at Deir el Belah, on the Palestinian coast, south of Gaza. It was captured by British forces in February 1917, and by April 1917 a light railway had advanced to it, the location thus becoming a railhead and important ‘Army Service Corps’ (A.S.C.) supply dump, stores arriving by rail and supply ship. From these railhead dumps, units of the divisional supply trains of the formations in the field (comprised of horsed transport companies of the ‘Army Service Corps’, or ‘Australian Army Service Corps’, usually one company for each brigade in a division) would transport food, fodder and fuel to the brigades in the forward areas, after which the regimental/battalion transport would take over (ammunition, both small-arm and artillery, was carried by divisional ammunition columns, manned by the Royal Artillery).

In addition to units of the British and Australian Army Service Corps, and the indispensable ‘Egyptian Camel Transport Corps’, the Indian Army’s ‘Supply and Transport Corps’ (S.&T.C.) was also present during the campaigns in Sinai and Palestine, as components of the units and formations serving with the ‘Indian Expeditionary Force E’ (which, after 1916 and the demise of ‘Indian Expeditionary Force F’, was the encompassing designation for all units from British India and the Princely States serving in Egypt and Palestine). In the photograph, the Indian troops are men of the Supply and Transport Corps, and, from their animals, specifically from a ‘Mule Corps’ unit. The Supply and Transport Corps had been formed in 1901, and consisted of three types of unit, ‘Mule Corps’, ‘Silladar Camel Corps’ and ‘Pony Cart Trains’; the ‘Mule Corps’ were by far the most numerous, there being in excess of 20 by 1914, all numbered.

In 1914, a ‘Mule Corps’ of the Supply and Transport Corps was commanded by a British Officer (usually a Major or Captain), and consisted of 8 Troops of 96 mules each, the Troops being divided into two ‘sub-divisions’, each sub-division being in the charge of a British Warrant Officer (with the title of ‘Conductor’). Each Troop was overseen by an Indian Kot-Daffadar (Troop Serjeant-Major), assisted by two Naiks (Corporals), and comprised about fifty Indian Drabis (Drivers). In addition, each Mule Corps had two British senior N.C.O.s (acting as Serjeant-Major and Quartermaster-Serjeant), two Indian Officers (the Adjutant and Veterinary Officer), and two Indian clerks. In peace-time, the Corps had 200 small carts, with four of the Troops using them for draught purposes.

Usually, two Mule Corps were assigned to an Indian Division, their rôle being to provide the first-line transport for battalions of infantry, regiments of cavalry, and companies of ‘Sappers and Miners’ (i.e. engineers). This was unlike the system in the British Army, where infantry battalions, cavalry regiments, and Royal Engineer companies looked after their own transport needs. Also unlike the British system was that men of the Mule Corps acted as the ammunition column for Indian divisions. Moreover, the concept of a ‘Divisional Train’ was unknown in the Indian Army before 1914: although the Mule Corps carried water, ammunition, entrenching tools, signalling, and medical equipment for their units, they had not previously transported food, fodder or fuel, which had hitherto been found in the field by the infantry, cavalry or sappers themselves. Thus (as was the case with Indian forces in France, Mesopotamia, and East Africa) although the battalions, regiments and companies of the Indian Army serving in Sinai and Palestine still had mule transport supplied by the Supply and Transport Corps (albeit under wartime conditions, which often saw the old numbered Mule Corps split up as infantry and cavalry units transferred to new formations), the divisional trains of existing divisions (such as the ‘3rd (Lahore) Division’ and the ‘7th (Meerut) Division’), and of formations created during the war (such as the 4th and 5th Cavalry Divisions), were made up of British or Australian Army Service Corps companies.

Therefore, the Indian muleteers in the photograph could be from a Mule Troop attached to any Indian unit in close proximity to Deir el Belah, or might be the ammunition column of an Indian divison: to give a sense of numbers involved, in September 1918, there were 2,725 men in Mule Corps units of the Supply and Transport Corps serving in the ‘Indian Expeditionary Force E’. Across the numerous Mule Corps, Drivers were mostly (up to 75%) Punjabi Muslim, with about a quarter to a fifth being Sikh, and a smaller proportion of other groups (such as Hindus); although Mule Corps were mixed, individual Troops were always of one particular religion. However, under the terms of their enlistment, recruits into the Indian Army had to swear to not allow caste prejudices to interfere in any way with the performance of their duties, when on active service.

The muleteers in the photo wear the standard field-service dress of the Indian Army, namely the kurta (loose-fitting blouse reaching almost to the knees), breeches and puttees (these men wearing them in the style adopted by Mounted Services, i.e. wound down from knee to boot), and pugaree (turban), all of these items being made of khaki-drill material. Equipment is that standard for Indian troops at the time, namely the brown leather ‘Bandolier Equipment, Pattern 1903’.

The man on the left, with, possibly, N.C.O.s chevrons on his upper sleeve, appears to be a Sikh, distinguished by his pugaree increasing in size towards the top, and being worn without a khulla (conical cap worn under the pugaree) or shamla (tail). The man on the right could be a Baluchi (and thus a Muslim), with a small pugaree showing a shamla, and the hint of a khulla. On the front of the pugaree, Indian troops of the S.&T.C. would have worn the badge shown below.

Сообщение отредактировал cmf: 13 Июль 2016 - 00:38


#18 НЕ В СЕТИ   Freiwillige

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Отправлено 12 Июль 2016 - 20:35

Incredible expertise, Chris! :thank_you2:
I found myself speechless having read your comments that vivid piece of British military history!!!
:JC_ThankYou: :JC_ThankYou: :JC_ThankYou:

P.S. More photos to follow soon! :blush:

#19 НЕ В СЕТИ   cmf

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Отправлено 12 Июль 2016 - 20:47

Thanks Andrew!!!!!!! :JC_doubleup:

I really got my teeth into the bit with this one, but then again it is my subject!! All you ever need to know about the men shown in those photos is there!! :lol2:

Can't wait to see some more!!!

Chris

Сообщение отредактировал cmf: 12 Июль 2016 - 20:49


#20 НЕ В СЕТИ   Freiwillige

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Отправлено 16 Июль 2016 - 22:53

Фото № 6. Надпись на обороте: "Турецкие военнопленные".
Photo No.6 Caption on reverse reads "Turkish Prisoners".




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