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Could you please have a look at an article dedicated to Romanian steel helmets I wrote today and let me know if you found any errors. Additional info is much appreciated as well!

Thanks in advance!


Romanian steel helmets


Adrian helmet M15 (Cască model Adrian)


Heavy losses among Romanian military personnel during the Great War due to enemy fire, splinters and shrapnel led to introduction of protective headgear the most reliable being steel helmets already in use by other participants. Thus French Adrian helmets (Le casque Adrian M1915) were ordered by Romania in autumn 1916 and 90,000 pieces were delivered in January next year. They were issued to the troops in spring 1917.

Helmets were painted in grey-blue color (so called “bleu artillerie” or “horizon blue”) while darker color variations are known as well.

Distinctive Romanian badge in form of an oval plate bearing a cipher of the King Ferdinand I (two letters “F” topped by a royal crown) was attached to the front.

Helmets were painted dark chocolate brown in early 20s and olive khaki since 1925 when a new uniform was adopted.

During the reign of King Carol II (June 08, 1930 – September 06, 1940) the badge was changed and had new king’s cipher (two letters “C” topped by a royal crown).

After Romania opted for Dutch helmets in 1939 obsolete Adrain helmets with removed badges were issued to reserve and second line troops. There they were painted with different colors, e.g. black for anti-aircraft artillery units.

It’s worth mentioning here that Adrian helmets were still in use as late as 1970s as various civil defense units were equipped with remaining WWI headgear painted red.


Steel helmet M1939 (Cască model 1939)


Romania started looking for a new supplier of headgear in 1937 aiming to replace obsolete Adrian helmets. As a result of negotiations between Romanians and Dutch that took place in August 1938 in Bucharest, an order of 300,000 helmets was placed at the Dutch manufacturer VerBliFa (Vereenigde Blikfabrieken) on September 05, 1938. Dutch helmet M34 (Helm Model 1934) has been chosen as a base model. An additional order for 800,000 pieces followed soon.

Helmets designated M1939 (Cască model 1939) were painted olive khaki and most of them had distinctive Romanian badge in form of an oval plate bearing a cipher of the King Carol II (two letters “C” topped by a royal crown) attached to the front. This badge had to be removed after abdication of Carol II that followed on September 06, 1940 but sometimes that order wasn’t carried out properly.

M1939 helmets were manufactured and supplied to Romanian army up to middle 1942.


Captured Dutch helmets (Căştii olandeze)


Captured Dutch helmets M27 (Helm Model 1927), M34 (Helm Model 1934) and M40 (Helm Model 1940) were handed over to Romania by Germans after the Netherlands surrendered in May 1940.

Dutch emblems were removed and replaced by distinctive Romanian badges in form of an oval plate bearing a cipher of the King Carol II (two letters “C” topped by a royal crown).


Steel helmet M1939/1942 (Cască model 1939/1942)


Modified model of M1939 helmet was manufactured by the Dutch company VerBliFa (Vereenigde Blikfabrieken) since 1943 and was designated M39/42 (Cască model 1939/1942). Unlike previous model it was slightly smaller, lacked slot at the back and was fitted with German M1931 lining produced by Biedermann und Czarnikow (Berlin).

Traditional frontal badge was missing.

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Andrew, the article is OK, just a few small things:

- Adrian helmet M15 -the Romanian Adrian helmet was called M1916 (cască Adrian md.1916)

- Steel helmet M1939 -the info is OK

- Captured Dutch helmets -the Germans delivered only M1927 and M1934 captured Dutch helmets to Romanians, without the cipher of the King Carol II

- Steel helmet M1939/1942 -the only difference with the M1939 helmet was that the M1939/42 had a German helmet liner


- German helmets

- Romanian cavalry and mountain troops worn German M1935 helmets as early as spring of 1944 (by late 1942 Romania ordered 800.000 helmets), I also have seen photos of Romanian solders wearing the Stahlhelm as early as December 1943 and even 1941 but in this cases the helmets were provided by the Germans ”on the spot” for reconnaissance purposes

- the Romanian paratroopers were equipped with German Fallschirmjäger helmets

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